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mercenaria mercenaria(拉丁文学名)
   

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    The hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as a quahog (or quahaug), round clam, or hard-shell (or hard-shelled) clam, is an edible marine bivalve mollusk which is native to the eastern shores of North America, from Prince Edward Island to the Yucatán Peninsula. It is one of many unrelated edible bivalves which in the United States are frequently referred to simply as clams, as in the expression "clam digging". Older literature sources may use the systematic name Venus mercenaria; this species is indeed in the family Veneridae, the venus clams.
    Confusingly, the "ocean quahog" is a different species, Arctica islandica, which, although superficially similar in shape, is in a different family of bivalves: it is rounder than the hard clam, usually has black periostracum, and there is no pallial sinus in the interior of the shell.
    The hard clam has many alternative common names. It is also known as the Northern quahog, round clam, or chowder clam.
    In fishmarkets there are specialist names for different sizes of this species of clam. The smallest clams are called countnecks, next size up are littlenecks, then topnecks. Above that are the cherrystones, and the largest are called quahogs or chowder clams.
    Of all these names, the most distinctive is quahog . This name comes from the Narragansett word "poquauhock" – the word is similar in Wampanoag and some other Algonquian languages – and is first attested in North American English in 1794. As New England Indians made valuable beads called wampum from the shells, especially those colored purple, the species name mercenaria is related to the Latin word for commerce.
    In many areas where aquaculture is important, clam farmers have bred specialized versions of these clams with distinctions needed for them to be distinguished in the marketplace. These are quite similar to common 'wild type' Mercenaria clams, except that their shells bear distinctive markings; for example those from Wellfleet, Massachusetts and elsewhere have pronounced wavy or zigzag chestnut-colored lines on their shells, reminiscent of a line of W's running across the shell. These are known as the notata strain of quahogs, which occur naturally in low numbers wherever quahogs are found

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